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Measurement and Analysis of Industrial Forklifts Vibration Levels

Laszlo Horvath Ph.D.
Associate Professor; Director,
Center for Packaging and Unit Load Design

Forklifts are one of the most common material handling equipment used in warehouses and distribution centers. Vibration generated by forklifts may have an effect on the performance of unit loads and product damage rate. Historical research projects focused predominantly on the measurement of vibration for over-the-road transportation. Thus, there is a lack of understanding of the level of vibration caused by forklifts as a function of different factors such as speed, surface quality, forklift type and unit load weight. The goal of this study was to understand how vibration experienced by forklifts is affected by factors such as speed, road conditions, unit load weight, type of forklift, and sensor location. For the study, power spectral density (PSD) was collected using data loggers. Vibration levels were measured for three different industrial forklifts (gas-powered forklift, electric-powered forklift, and reach truck) under two different types of surface (concrete and asphalt). The forklifts were driven at two different speeds (2mph and 3mph) while carrying two different unit load weights (1,500 lbs and 2,500 lbs). For all the conditions, the vibration levels were measured at the forklift carriage and fork tine tips. The results obtained showed that the highest vibrational intensity occurred at 3-4 Hz, while the highest Grms value observed was 0.145 G2/Hz. An increase in the forklift speed caused an increase in vibration intensity. In contrast, an increase in the unit load weight carried by the forklift caused a decrease in vibration intensity. Among the three forklifts studied, the gas-powered forklift had the highest vibration intensity, and forklifts driven on asphalt experienced more vibration. The obtained forklift profile will be used to generate a dynamic test to assess the performance of the pallet on the forklift.

Build Custom Tests with PackSight!

Eric Hiser, Vice President of Standards & Certification, ISTA
Katie Exum, Product Success Manager, Specright
Jill Kurpershoek, Senior Marketing Associate, Specright

The ISTA and Specright team share a live demo of PackSight’s powerful new custom test builder feature that makes it easy for you to customize a test specific to your distribution chain. This webinar also covered new enhancements to the tool’s reporting and delivery capabilities, including adding hi-res photos, videos and online password protected reporting links you can share with your team and customers. Q&A session included. ISTA's PackSight, powered by Specright is an online test planning and reporting platform for ISTA test procedures.  

How to Make a Data-Driven Lane Risk Assessment for a COVID-19 Vaccine Delivery

Stefan Braun
SmartCAE
Managing Director

This talk comprises several case studies from Covid-19 vaccine delivery with different labels, 2-8 °C, <-20 °C and < -70 °C with dry ice. This illustrates how the Virtual Cold Chain is used to simulate the risk of temperature excursions on a lane. The versatility and statistical reliability achieved with this strategy go far beyond what can be achieved in traditional purely test-driven approaches. Typical factors that lead to temperature excursions are tolerances in insulation materials and preconditioning processes, ambient temperatures that are different from prequalification test profiles, influence of the sun when the packages are held on the tarmac, temperature differences during conditioning of PCMs, and more. All factors can be included in the Virtual Cold Chain lane risk assessment. A large set of simulation scenarios is set up to analyze the influence of each individual factor on the risk of temperature excursions. Stability data of the transported drug are used to rate the severity of the excursion, and to decide whether it is an uncritical temperature label excess, or a product integrity violation. Using the parameters excursion rate and rate of product loss, which are available from the simulation, the total costs of ownership for different packaging solutions are determined. This systematic approach enables finding the optimal packaging for a specific lane under cost/risk considerations.

Frustration-Free Packaging Programs at Amazon: Status & Update

Sabrina Burkhardt, Customer Packaging Experience (CPEX) Lab Manager, Amazon

This webinar highlights the Frustration-Free Packaging Programs’ impact in delighting customers through reducing product damage rates and packaging waste. Beginning with a recap of the development and importance of the ISTA 6-Amazon.com SIOC test, this presentation will provide an overview of both successes and learnings from our original Non-Sort Incentive program and what’s coming next: The Frustration-Free Packaging Programs Incentive Expansion, announced June 1, 2021 for North America. After a walkthrough of the 2021 incentive program, we will close with several case studies from brand owners that have redesigned their packaging to be easy-to-open, 100% recyclable, and can be shipped without adding protective packaging.

2021 ISTA Annual Membership Meeting

Learn more about board member updates, a financial and membership review, and some of ISTA’s major focuses in 2021.

ISTA Update: May 27, 2021

Learn about what's happening at ISTA! Check out an update on our packaging community from Greg Batt, Chair of ISTA's Global Board of Directors.

Laboratory Techniques to Simulate Dunnage Used in the LTL Distribution Environment Webinar

Eric Hiser, Vice President of Standards & Certification, ISTA
Kyle Dunno, Assistant Professor, RIT – Packaging Science Program
Jim Bisha, Manager - Packaging Optimization, Chainalytics LLC
Brennan Lytle, Research Associate, Clemson University

Dunnage materials are widely used in the less than truckload (LTL) shipping environment, due to the wide array of freight handled on a daily basis. While the dunnage is designed to restrict the motion of freight, in doing so, it can sometimes damage the freight as a result of certain events (shocks and vibration hazards) occurring during shipment. The premier transport test standard for simulating general LTL transport is ISTA Procedure 3B. This standard exposes packaged products, both individual and unitized, to different transport hazards commonly experienced by this mode of transport. While the test standard challenges the freight to different laboratory simulated hazards, missing from the standard is the interaction between freight and dunnage material.  It was this identified gap that led to the formation of a workgroup to investigate the interaction during shock and vibration events.  This webinar provides an overview of the workgroups progress towards development of a test method(s) including investigate work conducted at university partners RIT and Clemson.

PackSight Updates & New Custom Test Builder Feature Coming Soon

The ISTA and Specright team recently held a live demo of PackSight at the 2021 Virtual ISTA Forum. The demo included an overview of the new tool and platform updates. March 31, 2021

Major Brand Uses PackSight to Improve their e-Commerce Strategies & Custom Test Builder Feature

The ISTA and Specright team conducted a live demo of PackSight, a new online test planning and reporting platform for ISTA test procedures. Click here to view the webinar Q&As. February 25, 2021

Supplier Uses PackSight in the Lab to Save Time and Ramp Up Testing Volume

Advance Packaging Corporation took us in the lab to share how they've been using PackSight to save time and ramp up testing volume. The ISTA and Specright team provided more helpful tips, platform updates and concluded with a Q&A session. Webinar held November 18, 2020. Click here for the answers to the Q&A portion of the webinar!

Introduction to ISTA

Learn about the International Safe Transit Association (ISTA) and the benefits we offer to packaging, transportation, and supply chain professionals world-wide. 

ISTA Update: September 21, 2020

Greg Batt, Chair of ISTA’s Global Board of Directors shares an update about what’s happening with ISTA’s packaging community. Check it out to learn more!

ISTA Update: July 28, 2020

Learn about what's happening at ISTA! Check out an update on our packaging community from Greg Batt, Chair of ISTA's Global Board of Directors.

PackSight Demo of ISTA 6-Amazon SIOC Test and Tips & Tricks

The ISTA and Specright team conducted a live demo of PackSight and the ISTA 6-Amazon SIOC Test. Webinar held July 23, 2020.
Click here for the answers to the Q&A portion of the demo!

2020 ISTA Annual Membership Meeting

Download additional ISTA Update slides: Click here.

PackSight Demo, Benefits and Getting Started

The ISTA and Specright team conducted a live demo of PackSight, a new online test planning and reporting platform for ISTA test procedures. Webinar held May 12, 2020. Click here for the answers to the Q&A portion of the demo.

Creating a Metric for CPG Distribution Unsalables: A Demonstration of Concept Project

Dennis E. Young
Specialist, Michigan State University
School of Packaging

After the drop tester and shaker are shut off and all the data are summarized, the test stakeholders have the most important task remaining. What were the results? Interpretation of distribution package testing results has always been a challenge. Acceptable package condition can be highly subjective. In this presentation a general method of quantifying unsalables is presented and demonstrated, using leading edge technologies for package evaluation. The process utilizes technology that minimizes delays, supporting fast to market response for brand owners and package designers alike.

Pallets and Mold Control

Ralph Rupert
Manager - Unit Load Technology
Millwood, Inc.

Mold growth on pallets continues to be problematic for both pallet producers and users. This presentation will discussed the importance of properpallet storage and the role of moisture in preventing mold growth. There is often a misconception that heat treatment for ISPM15 requirements is alsoa mold prevention method. In fact, heat treatment often enhances the potential of mold growth. A introduction into alternative chemical treatments willbe included.

A Visual Study of Cushion Geometry's Effect on Performance

Bill Green
IBM

Determining static loading and cushion curves are essential for any cushion design, but are generally only the beginning of a good design, not the end. A cushion design's geometry also plays a vital role in the performance of a cushion. This study visually analyzes, the effects that a PE cushion's geometry has on performance, using a high speed video camera.

Techniques for Reducing the Time of Laboratory Vibration Simulation

Kyle Dunno
Clemson

Further analysis of vehicle vibration techniques is examined in this continued presentation from the ISTA TransPack Forum 2013. This presentation examines the findings when additional packaged products are subjected to different techniques of vertical vibration simulation. Over the road vehicle vibration data was collected, analyzed, and used to simulate the vibration input to packaged products during transportation. Results will compare the findings of the different vibration techniques. Correlation of test results will also be compared to field samples. Additionally, the presentation will also explore the opportunity of reduced test time without compromising the actual field data collected. Different methods for reducing test time will be explored and compared to field samples. Results and discoveries of this trial will be introduced.

Benchmarking of Industrial Machine Wrap Stretch Film

Larry Effler
The Dow Chemical Company

Ergonomics and Manual Material Handling

Susie Elkins
Millwood, Inc.

This presentation provides an introduction to Ergonomics and Manual Material Handling. As members of ISTA and the packaging community, we are in a unique position to help improve ergonomics as it relates to handling products, packages, and unit loads. Takeaways: A better understanding of how to recognize high-risk manual material handling work tasks and choose effective options for reducing their physical demands, increasing general safety and health aspects of work environments, and increasing productivity.

Laboratory Evaluation of ASTM D4169 (Current and Proposed) and ISTA Vibration Profiles

Michael Morrow

Recently, efforts have been made to update the random vibration profiles located in ASTM D4169. Highlighted will be the changes being proposed to the ASTM standard. The presentation will provide laboratory test results for various packaged products evaluated under the current and proposed ASTM D4169 Truck profiles as well as the ISTA Steel Spring Truck profile. Takeaways: Results of packaged products evaluated under different vibration techniques; Correlation of proposed and current industry test methods to field studies; Overview and highlights from proposed ASTM truck profiles.

Systems Based Design of Global Supply Chains

Marshall White
Professor Emeritus
White and Company LLC

Evolving consumer expectations are driving changes of the consumer goods supply chains. To meet these demands for low cost, high quality and rapid delivery supply chains have become extended internationally and they have become more fragile. These supply chains are made up of multiple components including layers of packaging and the various equipment used to move, ship, and store the product. Historically, these components are designed by independent design communities with little consideration of how they mechanically interact. This component design process has led to supply chains operating with significant avoidable cost. An alternative, systematic design process, based on an understanding of how the components of supply chains mechanically interact, will be described, with examples. This leads to a collaboration of designers that reduces supply chain operating cost and improves sustainability, reliability and safety.

Being a Packaging Engineer at a Food Manufacturer in this Omni-Channel World

Greg Roskos
The J.M. Smucker Company

There was a time when a new product launch was a singular activity, possibly pluralized by flavors and variety. Now it's a multi-pronged, compound tiered activity with various packaging formats, sizes and configurations. How can we as packaging professionals execute a successful multi-channel launch in this complex world?

Adapting to the Re-configuration of the Retail Supply Chain

Greg Fornaseiro
Home Depot

Many of the major retailers today must sell through both retail outlets and online channels to remain competitive and relevant. This change in the delivery process is transforming retail supply chains from a unitized bulk storage operation to a single package environment. However, in the current transition state, retailers are challenged with managing the balance between cost and performance. The task of package design and test requirements becomes more challenging when products are established in a Brick and Mortar retail business, and begin to rapidly gain sales in the online environment. Takeaways: Understand the difficulty of designing universal packaging and to explore options for finding the appropriate balance between the right retail package and the right E-Commerce package. Explain different ways, data, testing and research can help strike the right balance for the design approach.

Application of a Triboelectric Energy Harvester in Transport Packaging

Greg Batt
Assistant Professor
Clemson University

For centuries the scientific community has been finding ways to harvest energy from naturally occurring phenomena, such as wind and solar radiation. In the last century, tremendous strides in energy harvesting have been made in tandem with the invention of novel energy harvesting devices. These devices are able to harvest -energy from processes such as magnetism, thermal radiation, and ocean waves. A few of the most prominent and effective methods for energy harvesting are electromagnetic, piezoelectric, thermoelectric, and triboelectric, all of which utilize polymeric materials, ceramics, and various metals. Clemson University is in the process of using one of these methods to harvest energy from the motion of transportation, store it, and use it to power sensors that will measure the very same distribution environment from which the energy was harvested. In this presentation, we will explore the use of a triboelectric energy harvester in a packaging application and demonstrate its use in powering a field data recorder.

Comparative Measurement and Observation from Intermodal Transportation

Eric Joneson
Vice President of Technology
Lansmont

A New Look at Simulation Testing to Replicate Packaging and Product Damage in the Field

Alex Hagedorn
GE - Appliances & Lighting

Common ship testing by procedure and off the shelf equipment in many cases is not enough to replicate damage/hazards found in the field. Understanding the environment is critical to product/packaging success. This presentation will provide examples of creative tests and equipment developed from field data and myth busting.

Innovating Your Innovations

Robby Martin
Engineer Specialist
Bush Brothers & Co.

Over-the-Road Load Shift Investigative Case Study

Eric Joneson
Vice President of Technology
Lansmont

Stability Palletised Corrugated Packaging in Modern Supply Chains

Gerard van den Boogaard
Expertise Manager Supply Chain
Smurfit Kappa Development Centre

The main challenges of modern supply chains are managing the volatility, adapting to the omni-channel consumer and becoming more sustainable. In any supply chain scenario palletized packaging plays a role, however, the boundary conditions are changing rapidly. Mixed loads, stacked pallets, repacking, etc. are no longer the exception to enable producers managing the ever-increasing supply chain complexity. The higher requirements on pallet handling puts more and more pressure on the stability of palletised corrugated packaging. Palletised corrugated packages should be stable in any supply chain to avoid logistic problems, health and safety hazards and product damage. The traditional way to find out if the is a trial (and error) shipment or a test. With today's potential risks and time pressure this is not sufficient anymore. Combining the results of scientific insights, intensive testing and practical experience enabled us to develop a predictive tool to assess the stability of a palletised load. The tool helps to increase the speed and risk assess the palletized load, a critical step in today's volatile supply chain.

Effects of Social Media and Packaging on e-Commerce Shippers

Jack Mahoney
Brand Manager
Pregis

Today, many companies build their brand primarily through digital interactions with customers and the ensuing package deliveries from online purchases. Brand value is increasingly important due to competitive pressure from the largest retailers, distributors, and store brands. As a result, businesses are looking to own and optimize their brand experience to drive future sales. A key component of brand experience is the protective packaging used to reduce damages and capitalize on the unboxing experience. This session will dive into the quantifiable value provided by delivering a positive customer experience and its impact on future sales.

Developing Thermal Data Analysis Standards: Algorithms for Developing Temperature Test Profiles from Ambient Lane Data

Bernard McGarvey
Retired

Paul Harber
Founder
Parental Supply Chain

Development of thermal testing profiles using data collected from various lanes is a common practice in the pharmaceutical industry. These thermal profiles are used in chamber testing of shipping containers. Currently the available standards emphasize the use of a standard test profile. This presentation argues that we now need to begin to identify standard algorithms for developing test profiles as well. This will allow shippers to develop test profiles form their own sourced data. In particular, this presentation describes the QT(min/max) method for developing thermal profiles and demonstrates how it is superior to several existing methods that are currently in use. This method is a critical element in an overall risk analysis for evaluating the suitability of pre-qualified passive container solutions. Additionally, this method can be utilized to compare thermal profiles irrespective of the method used to create them. The integration of this method with thermal modeling simulations of passive container solutions is also considered.

Developing Climatic OQ Thermal Challenge Profiles

Bryan Cardis
Consultant Cold Chain and Packaging Engineer
Eli Lilly and Company

Jeffrey Chida 
Consultant Engineer
Eli Lilly and Company

There are times when products will be distributed in areas, geographic zones that might not have actual collected shipping lane ambient temperature data in order to generate thermal OQ profiles in order to qualify temperature controlled shipping containers. Lilly has developed a process to utilize climatic data to support these undefined regions in order to develop a thermal OQ profile in the absence of actual lane data to support commercialization of the product supply chain. Originally presented at ISTA's 2018 TempPack in San Diego, California.

Retail Supply Channels for CPGs In India: An Evaluation of Handling, Storage & Transportation in the Distribution Environment

Jay Singh
Professor & Packaging Program Director
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo

While it leads the global retail opportunity index as the greatest under-served market in the world, the Indian logistics/supply chain sector has yet to even meet the requirements of the urban population due to challenges such as poor infrastructure, highly fragmented supplier base, complex systems of taxes & government regulations, ineffective usage of information technologies & communication, insufficient mature distribution channels, non-existent warehouse standards, and disorganized trucking operations. The general intended supply chains in India are fairly unique. This presentation provides summary details of the supply chain related distribution activities of 13 CPG manufacturers, retailers and e-commerce companies in India. While quite a few of the companies included in this study follow adapted versions of western supply chain models, a majority rely on fairly unique versions of the Indian legacy models. Takeaways: At present, the Indian logistics industry is highly fragmented and unorganized. Development of logistics related infrastructure, like dedicated freight corridors, logistics parks, free trade warehousing zones and container freight stations, are expected to improve efficiencies. Players in the Indian CPG retail sector must understand the evolving logistical landscape to take advantage of greatest under-served markets in the world. Originally presented at ISTA's 2019 TransPack Forum in Denver, Colorado.

Dynamic Highlights of Comprehensive Intermodal Distribution Measurement Study

Eric Joneson
Vice President of Technology
Lansmont

This presentation will highlight dynamic measurement highlights made during a large study of intermodal shipments, made between the eastern and western United States. This study focused comparative measurements made at the container floor, bottom pallet and top pallet locations. The results provided the ability to understand how unit loads responded to the various transport dynamic inputs.

ISTA Testing Laboratory Certification Portal

ISTA Lab Certification Portal

Amazon Update on Testing and Certification

Brent Nelson, Amazon Principal Product Manager, Packaging, Customer Packaging Experience
This webinar was held August 15, 2019 for ISTA Certified Laboratories.

As Amazon collaborates with vendors around the world to drive adoption of their sustainable packaging standards, it is important that the ISTA certified test lab community is aware of Amazon's program and requirements. This webinar provides a brief update on Amazon's Frustration-Free Packaging (FFP) Vendor Incentive Program, topics below, as well as offer labs an opportunity to ask questions directly to Amazon. - Current status of launch for NA and EU. - Review exclusions to ensure all understand differences from NA vs. EU. - Pending changes to guidelines. - How are labs marketing their services? Are they proactively marketing? - Q&A